Cover - Knowledge Communities and the Social and Discursive Construction of Bandung as a Creative City

Lenny Martini

Knowledge Communities

and the Social and Discursive Construction of Bandung as a Creative City

february 2024, 332 pages, paperback, size 225 x 155 mm
isbn 978-3-947729-85-2
series Das regionale Fachbuch

also available as ebook (PDF)


34,90 euro (D)
incl. VAT, plus shipping fees


Bearing a positive, optimistic, and exclusive connotation, “creative city” has become a “hype” urban development concept, being adopted by many cities worldwide. Thus, without careful consideration and solid theoretical grounds in the local context, enforcing the creative city concept can potentially be a trap for these cities, exacerbating the prevailing urban problems while inadvertently hiding the issues behind the aesthetic urban facades. Bringing the case of Bandung, a creative city in Indonesia, the book unpackages the struggle of knowledge communities—a bottom-up youth literacy movement—in facilitating the citizen of Bandung in translating the concept to fit into their local context and to be recognized internationally. Through the lens of the Sociology of Knowledge Approach to Discourse (SKAD), the research analyses urban development, the creative city concept, knowledge communities, and their interplay as political phenomenons laden with interests, power, contestation, conflicts, dependencies, collaborations, and other dynamic forms of interaction.
Challenging the homogenic interpretation of creativity and creative city, as well as the blind adoption of the concept, the book elaborates on the multiple interpretations of the creative city concept in Bandung; and the different responses of knowledge communities. By nurturing empathy, maintaining the vibrancy of the city, and fostering literacy, the case of knowledge communities in Bandung exemplifies the significant role of a grass root movement in constructing and shaping the forms of development in a non-reference city where experimentation and contesting global urban development fads take place.



Table of contents


Table of contents (PDF)

Abstract        vii
Acknowledgements    ix
List of Figures    xv
List of Tables    xix
Abbreviations    xxi
Glossary of Terms    xxv
Prologue        xxix

Chapter 1
Introduction: The Right to the ‘Creative City’    1
    1.1     The Hype around the ‘Creative City’    1
    1.2     Contextual Background: Bandung    5
    1.3     Research Objective    8
    1.4     Outline of the Book    11

Chapter 2     
Discourses of the Creative City Concept and Knowledge Community    15
    2.1     Discourses around the ‘Creative City’    16
        2.1.1 Creative Urban Planning    18
        2.1.2 Creative Economy and Industry    21
        2.1.3 Cultural Production and Policy    24
        2.1.4 Critiques on the Creative City Concept    27
    2.2 Conceptual Discussion around ‘Knowledge’ and ‘Knowledge Community’    31
        2.2.1 Community of Practice, Knowledge Society, and Knowledge Community    31
        2.2.2 Knowledge Sharing    35
        2.2.3 Local Knowledge and bottom-up Urban Development    40
    2.3    Current Research Position    42

Chapter 3
Research Design and Operationalization    51
    3.1    Sociology of Knowledge Approach to Discourse (SKAD)    51
    3.2     Conceptual Framework    54
    3.3     Positionality     57
    3.4     Data Compilation and Analysis    59

Chapter 4    
Repertoire of Creativity in Bandung    67
    4.1    Creativity and the Entertainment Culture    68
    4.2    Creativity and the Intellectual Inquiries    73
    4.3    Creativity and the Struggle to Survive    76
    4.4    Creativity, Counter-culture, and Entrepreneurialism    83
    4.5    Concluding Discussion     88

Chapter 5
Knowledge Communities in Bandung    91
    5.1    Typology of Komunitas and Knowledge Community    92
    5.2    The Emergence of Knowledge Communities    95
    5.3    Knowledge sharing: Energy, Empathy, Literacy    99
        5.3.1 Knowledge sharing    99
        5.3.2 Energy, Empathy, Literacy    107
    5.4    The Characteristics of Knowledge Communities    115
        5.4.1 Common Interest    115
        5.4.2 Common Space    117
        5.4.3 Independence    120
        5.4.4 Friendship-based Network    122
        5.4.5 Diversity    123
    5.5     Concluding Discussion    128

Chapter 6
Bandung as a Creative City    131
    6.1    Adoption of the Creative City Concept in Bandung    132
    6.2    The Creative Mayor    145
    6.3    Creative City as an Economic Driver    151
        6.3.1 Alignment with National Strategy of Creative Economy Development    151
        6.3.2 Supports from Media, Academician, and Business Institutions    157
    6.4    Creative City as City Branding    161
        6.4.1 UNESCO City of Design    162
        6.4.2 Logo and Branding Design    165
        6.4.3 Creative City Artifacts    168
    6.5 Creative City as Social Identity    172
        6.5.1 Home of Creative People    173
        6.5.2 A Trendsetter City    176
    6.6     Concluding Discussion    181

Chapter 7
Legitimation and Contestation    183
    7.1    Legitimation from below    186
        7.1.1 BCCF: Initiation, Strategy, Program    186
        7.1.2 Keprok: Amplifying the Ambition of Bandung as a Creative City    196
    7.2     Contestation of Creative City Interpretations    205
        7.2.1 Narrow Interpretation of ‘Creativity’    206
        7.2.2 Contesting Creativity    214
    7.3    Concluding Discussion    220

Chapter 8    
Delegitimization and Negotiation    223
    8.1    Delegitimization of Creative City Labeling for Bandung    224
        8.1.1 Political Vehicle and Bandwagoning    225
        8.1.2 Negative Consequences of Creative City Concept Implementation    230
        8.1.3 Gimmick: Bandung under its Grand Illusion    240
    8.2 Negotiation    254
        8.2.1 Ten Principles of the Indonesian Creative City    254
        8.2.2 Expanding Knowledge Stocks on the Creative City and Creativity in Bandung    259
    8.3    Local Commitment, International Collaboration    262
    8.4    Concluding Discussion    267

Chapter 9    
    9.1    Bandung: Knowledge Community and Creative City    273
    9.2    Recommendations     275

Bibliography    279
Annex 1: List of some Knowledge Communities in Bandung     299





Introduction (PDF)